Slate – Natural Beauty with Every Step

Where Does Slate Come From?

Where Does Slate Come From?

Slate is a fine grained, crystalline stone derived from sediments of clay and great silt which were deposited on ancient sea bases. Laid over materials slowly settled the sedimentary particles into bedded deposits of shale. Hill structure pressures consequently folded, folded, and compressed the shale. At the same time, intense heat as well as stress changed the initial clays into brand-new minerals such as mica, chlorite, as well as quartz. By such mechanical and also chemical processes bedded clays were changed, or metamorphosed, into slate, whole geologic ages being consumed at the same time. Slates vary in structure, structure, and also longevity considering that the degree to which their determinant minerals have been modified is neither uniform nor consistent.
Four different tools made use of by a slater. These standard slater’s tools are utilized to destroy and also cut, hammer, gauge, and also rip out nails.

The adaptation of slate for roof replacement functions is totally linked to its genesis. The production processes of nature have endowed slate with particular commercially open residential properties which have actually had an extensive influence on the approaches by which slate is quarried and fabricated, in addition to its suitability for use as a roof floor tile.

These traditional slater's tools are used to cut and trim, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine
These traditional slater’s tools are used to cut and trim, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine

Slate roof replacement tiles are still made manually utilizing conventional approaches in a 5 step procedure: destroying, sculping, splitting, cutting, as well as opening boxing. In the manufacturing procedure, large, irregular blocks extracted from the quarry are first cut with a saw across the grain in parts slightly longer than the size of the completed roof covering slate. The blocks are next sculped, or divided along the grain of the slate, to widths slightly larger than the widths of finished slates. Sculping is normally accomplished with a mallet and a broadfaced sculpt, although some types of slate have to be cut along their grain. In the splitting location, the somewhat oversized blocks are split along their cleavage planes to the intended tile thickness. The splitter’s devices contain a wood mallet and also 2 splitting chisels used for prying the block into fifty percents as well as duplicating this process up until the intended slimness is gotten to. The last 2 steps include cutting the floor tile to the desired size and also then punching two nail holes toward the top of the slate making use of a formula based on the dimension and exposure of the slate.
Minerals, the structure blocks of rocks, with their unique crystalline frameworks define the bodily residential properties of the rocks which they make up. Slate consists of minerals that are stable and also resistant to weathering as well as is, as a result, generally of high stamina, low porosity, and low absorption. The low porosity as well as low absorption of slate mitigate the deleterious action of frost on the stone and make it well adapted for roof replacement purposes. The two most important structural properties of slate are cleavage and grain.

The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth’s crust and the heat and pressure generated thereby. For this reason, slate is discovered only in certain hilly regions. One of the most financially important slate down payments in this nation lie in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states crossed by or approaching the Appalachian Hill chain. Variants in local chemistry and also problems under which the slate was formed have produced a wide range of shades and qualities and ultimately figure out the personality of the slate found in these locations.

Slate is readily available in a variety of colors. The most typical are grey, blue-grey, black, various tones of environment-friendly, deep purple, brick red, and mottled varieties. The presence of carbonaceous matter, obtained from the decay of marine organisms on ancient sea floors, produces the black tinted slates. Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and also environment-friendly tinted slates.

An Example of a Natural Slate Quarry
An Example of a Natural Slate Quarry

Usually, the slates of Maine, Virginia, and the Peach Bottom area of York Area, Pennsylvania are deep blue-black in color. Those of Virginia have a distinctive lustrous appearance also due to their high mica material. The slates of Lehigh and also Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania, are grayish-black in color. Environment-friendly, red, purple, as well as mottled slates stem from the New York-Vermont area. The slate producing region of New York City, which centers around Granville and Middle Granville, is particularly important because it includes one of the few commercial deposits of red slate in the world.

Slates are also classified as fading or unfading based on their shade stability. Fading slates transform to new shades or may streak within a short time after exposure to the atmosphere due to the presence of finegrained disseminated pyrite. For example, the “weathering green” or “seagreen” slates of New York and also Vermont are grayish eco-friendly when fresh quarried. After direct exposure, from 20 % to 60 % of the slates typically weather to soft tones of orange-brown, buff, and gray while the others retain their original shade. Slates assigned as unfading maintain their original colors for years.

Shade durability normally supplies no sign of the sturdiness of slate. Instead, time has actually shown that the Vermont and New York slates will last about 125 years; Buckingham Virginia slates 175 years or more; and Pennsylvania SoftVein slates in excess of 60 years; Pennsylvania HardVein slates and Peach Bottom slates, neither of which is still quarried, had life spans of roughly ONE HUNDRED as well as at the very least 200 years respectively. The life expectancy given should be used only as a general guide in determining whether or not an existing slate roof covering is nearing the end of its serviceable life.

Bows show up as bands on the bosom face of slate as well as represent geologic periods during which higher bits of carbonaceous matter, calcite, or rugged quartz bits were present in the sediment where the slate was developed. Ribbons normally weather much more as well as were most common in Pennsylvania slate quarries. As they were not as resilient as clear slates, ribbon slate is no longer manufactured for roofing purposes. Mottled grey slates from Vermont are the closest match for Pennsylvania ribbon slate readily available today.

In the last few years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun to be imported into the United States, mostly for circulation on the West Coast. Using imported slates ought to possibly be restricted to new construction given that their colors and also structures frequently do not match those of U.S. slate.

Burning brand test in progress.

Fire Resistance of Natural Slate Roofing

Fire Resistance Testing of Natural Slate Roofing

The National Slate Association (NSA) and National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) recently teamed-up to conduct testing of the fire resistance of a slate roofing system in accordance with UL 790, “Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.”

The testing was inspired by a modification in the International Building Code (IBC), the 2009 edition of which identifies slate roof covering assemblies as having a Class A fire resistance just when mounted over a fireproof roof deck. Previous editions of the IBC marked slate roofing treatments as having a Class A rating when set up over combustible and also fireproof roofing system decks. The examination setting up included nominal 1/4-inch thick, North American slate roof shingles laid with a 3-inch headlap over No. 30 felt underlayment on a 1/2-inch plyboard roofing system deck. The examined assembly attained a Class A ranking.

While it is really hoped the positive test outcomes can be utilized to substantiate the fire resistance of likewise created slate roof covering assemblies, NSA as well as NRCA will remain to interact to excluded slate roofing system coverings from examining to establish their fire classification in future editions of the IBC. For questions connected to these examination records, please consult with the National Slate Organization toll free at 866-256-2111 or email them.

These photos are property of Mark_S_Graham, see additional photos on Flickr.

Benefits of Using Natural Slate

Natural Slate Roofing Benefits

Natural Slate Roofing Benefits

Slate roofs are not just durable, they are additionally water tight and also resistant to the weathering due to the natural elements. For centuries slate has actually been truly well-known for its organic beauty and exceptional resistance to weathering. Although most of the residents pick slate roof for its visual charm, purposefully or unknowingly they also wind up enhancing their home worth because of many perks of having a slate roof covering.

Although the top qualities of slate vary with the attributes of the rock it has actually been obtained from, the slate for your roofing must possess both sturdiness as well as hardness. When it is difficult it’s easier to punch in nails and destroy the items to different sizes without it breaking or breaking at the seams.

Natural Slate is one of Chicagoland’s most popular choices when it comes to roofing because of its durability and non-fading elements. CUPA PIZARRAS leads the way when it comes to natural slate quality, appearance and overall weather sustainability.

Natural Slate Roofing Installers - A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605
Installing CUPA Natural Slate – Chicagoland Installers A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605

The solidity avoids it from absorbing water during wet climate and also the repeating developments and contractions that can trigger the nail gaps to enlarge, loosening the roof as a consequence.

Homeowners opting for a slate roofing also enjoy lower insurance premiums because of having a fire resistant roof– since slate is made from stone, it doesn’t catch fire easily. With most of the slates having an absorption index of less than 0.4 % they are very resistant to water and therefore, they are not prone to cracking with the change of period. Due to the level surface area as well as very easy placing they can stand up to intense winds and they can easily endure via serious hailstorm storms without much damage.
It also reduces your energy costs because of its natural insulation capabilities. Whether you want to preserve cooler air inside or warm air, a slate roofing system doesn’t let it easily escape.

Natural Slate Roofing Installers - A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605
Natural Slate Roofing Installers – A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605

Why use slate over other roofing materials?

  • Slate offers you an unparalleled mix of longevity and also natural beauty
  • It can be cut into thin floor tiles of consistent density without much difficulty
  • A wide selection of natural slate shades and rich textures can enhance the aesthetic sense of any building
  • A typical roof covering made of slate could last for more compared to 120 years without repairs.
  • Slate being 100 % natural building material, it requires minimal processing and consequently, incurs less wastage of materials
  • Slate reclaimed from older buildings can be reused for newer renovations
  • No chemicals or artificial products called for unlike other artificial roofing materials
  • Slate roof coverings are fire immune, they are waterproof and they do not retain snow or ice
  • Quickly repairable after unexpected breakage
  • Slate roofs are insect resistance as insects can not effortlessly burrow right into slate, lay eggs or develop colonies inside the holes

Interesting in more information on a natural slate roof? Call us at (847) 827-1605 for a FREE ESTIMATE!

A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. Becomes Chicagoland's Official CUPA PIZARRAS Slate Roofing Installation Contractor

Chicagoland’s Official CUPA PIZARRAS Slate Roofing Installation Contractor

A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. Becomes Chicagoland’s Official CUPA PIZARRAS Slate Roofing Installation Contractor

WHEELING, Ill., April 6, 2015 /PRNewswire/ — Slate roofing contractor, A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. has been named Chicagoland’s official CUPA PIZARRAS slate installation contractor. Serving more than 3000+ Chicagoland area homeowners since 2003, A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. will now be performing all slate roofing services including but not limited to, slate roof tear-offs, slate roof repairs and complete slate roofing services.

Javier Quindos, Managing Director of CUPA PIZARRAS (USA) Inc. said:

“We believe our products need to be installed by expert roofers that understand the quality of our natural slate, and are willing to go the extra mile to deliver a perfect installation. Our partnership with A.B. Edward Enterprises will not only provide homeowners in the Chicagoland area with the best natural slate in the market, but also ensure that their roofs are as appealing and durable as they can possibly be.”

Bo Mikuta, President of A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. said:

“We are absolutely thrilled with our new installation partnership regarding CUPA PIZARRAS natural slate products. When it comes to installing industry leading slate products along with highly detailed installation services, this was a partnership that simply made sense. The quality of CUPA PIZARRAS natural slate products is unequivocally unmatched in the industry. This is a natural fit when it comes to Chicagoland area homeowners who expect the best. CUPA PIZARRAS slate has always been a top choice in roofing materials due to its many positive benefits and curb-appealing qualities. We look forward to serving our customers starting spring 2015.”

Benefits of Natural Slate Roofing Tiles: If you are looking for a “lifetime” roofing system that will provide superior durability and add a distinctive curb appeal to your home, consider investing into natural slate roofing. For centuries, slate has been highly acclaimed for its natural beauty and remarkable longevity, un-matched by other roofing materials. Natural slate provides numerous economic advantages, given it is a 100% sustainable product and involves practically no maintenance costs at all.

  • Non-combustible, resists fire, storm and wind
  • Waterproof, natural stone
  • Wide range of color combination
  • Effective appearance from texture, exposure and color
  • Little or no maintenance cost
  • Will not retain snow or ice
  • Resists climatic changes
  • Reduces insurance premiums
  • Extremely long life span
  • Accidental breakage easily replaced

CUPA PIZARRAS boast 16 quarries in Spain and 22 processing plants equipped with the latest slate roofing technology.

CUPA 14 Natural Slate (USA) Black slate with thin laminations and a riven surface. Split to an average thickness of 5mm, 7.5mm and 9 mm for the “Heavy” slate. CUPA PIZARRAS Slate is 100% natural. It has many characteristics that make its use a positive from an overall environmental standpoint. A slate roof’s longevity alone makes it an environmental plus and also contributes no detrimental substances to the environment. Natural Slate helps keep other roofing materials out of landfills and when it outlasts the building structure itself, it can actually be recycled. Slate’s density adds to temperature stability to a structure, is completely fireproof, helps lower net energy costs and is resistant to degradation regardless of climatic conditions.

THERMOSLATE™ is the first and only natural slate solar panels that successfully combines energy efficiency with aesthetic architectural integration and almost zero maintenance. CUPACLAD™ ventilated facade systems with CUPA PIZARRAS natural slate. This makes possible the installation of natural slate with horizontal orientation, offering new design possibilities for contemporary architecture.

Important Facts You Should Know:

The number one problem any homeowner faces with slate roofing is bad installation. It is critical that you use a reputable, and licensed roofing contractor with slate roofing experience to get all the benefits you deserve from a beautiful slate roof. Call (847) 827-1605 for more information on slate roofing installations.

The ongoing maintenance for a slate tile roof is nonexistent. It’s maintenance free. It will never need to be sealed, painted or cleaned. For more Information: CUPA PIZARRAS Slate installation services are now available through A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. You can visit their official website at to schedule a free no-hassle estimate for your home.

CUPA Group: CUPA PIZARRAS is the natural slate division of CUPA GROUP, the global leader in the production and commercialization of roofing slate, an international benchmark company in the production of natural stone and the development of innovative solutions to improve energy efficiency in the world of construction and its associated industries. CUPA PIZARRAS exploits their own slate quarries and exports to over 30 countries on 5 continents. CUPA GROUP possesses natural stone processing plants in Spain, Portugal, France, Brazil and China. For more information visit and

A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. specializes in roofing, siding, windows, gutters, masonry and more. As an all exteriors company since 2003, the company has served over 3000+ homeowners with an unblemished consumer rating. The company is fully licensed and insured and carries all major leading brands along with all required industry certifications. The company serves the entire North Shore area including suburban areas and downtown Chicago. For more information visit

Slate Roofs: A Primer on their Repair and Restoration

The Proper Way On How To Preserve a Natural Slate Roof

Preserving a Natural Slate Roof

The Proper Way On How To Preserve a Natural Slate Roof
A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605 | FREE Estimates

Slate Roofs: A Primer on their Repair and Restoration — Slate has been used as a roofing product for centuries in Europe and also has been the preferred choice for houses and also structures in the United States since the 19th century. Slate roofings are still seen frequently in upstate New York city and also throughout New England.

Just what does not exist, nonetheless, is a ready-supply of proficient, capable specialists to repair and bring back slate roofs. With a standard understanding of this highly-specialized roofing system, home owners can usually assess the current condition of their slate roofing, its life span as well as, if needed, the potential for reconstruction. The info that follows will help in evaluating and identifying your roofing system’s requirements as you, equipped with this info, thoroughly screen potential roofing contractors to effect these repair services. Olde Mohawk Historic Conservation is the favored professional for such work in Boston and throughout New England.

What fails with slate roofs?
In a lot of instances, the issue is among the following:

– Variations in duration and quality
– Flashings and other metalwork requirement replacement
– Earlier repairs by careless professional roofer

Variants in period and quality of slate – Slate is pulled from the earth in massive slabs and dressed down into individual shingles mostly by hand. Slate is stone, and stone is long lasting. Nonetheless, stone is a natural material and may have minute or even invisible fissures that will ultimately cause slates to damage and slide off the roofing. Roofing slates are ranked by ANSI according to solidity. Softer slates (ranked S2 or S3) may end up being crunchy as well as will delaminate, in some cases, as early as 55 years, as well as definitely by 80-100 years. These softer slate roofing systems (commonly from Pennsylvania) can not be saved or restored, for the most part, however repairs could buy time.

Better, hard slate, like most New York, Vermont, Peach Bottom, Buckingham, or Monson, will last for centuries on a properly looked after roof covering. It is important that individuals who have, inspect or work on slate roofing systems are able to recognize the slate on the roof in question. This single-most crucial information will certainly supply details as to its type, origin, durability, attributes, and also qualities. Contact Olde Mohawk for a free appointment specific to your slate roof. Roofing slate is still being quarried and sold in New york city and Vermont (as well as Pennsylvania as well as Virginia.) Slate was likewise once quarried in Georgia and Maine (home of the world-famous Monson slate.).

Blinking replacement as well as integrated gutter systems.
While the slate might last “permanently,” the steel flashings will not. Flashings are essentially the metalwork used to stop the seepage of water wherever there is a sudden angle or position in the roofing (ie, smokeshafts, valleys, dormers.) Frequently, flashings were made from terne-coated steel, which is a steel coated with a lead/tin mix. This is in some cases, improperly, called “tin.” Terne-coated steel has to be repainted on a regular basis or rust will occur.

Copper flashings (either ordinary copper or lead-coated) were most frequently set up on government structures, churches, and also similar institutions as well as high end homes. Copper will certainly oxidize as vert de gris shows up. Copper will certainly begin to neglect after about 60 to 70 years in areas of high wear, such as valleys. The copper sector suggests a life of 80 years. Older copper flashings can be repainted in order to extend their lives. Too often, the flashings fail and also underhanded roof repair specialists persuade homeowners to change their good, slate roof with asphalt. Only the flashings should be changed, not the entire roof.

These kinds of projects are routine for slate roof mitigation insulation contractors. The adjacent slates are eliminated to enable replacement of the flashings. The eliminated slate are then installed in their initial locations, laving the roof, in look, as it was before, except for the flashing. The requirement upon which a repair is judged is that it must not appear to the layperson that any type of repair, at all, happened, besides new, visible flashings.

Box gutter linings, or “built-in” gutter systems, are an additional common problem on aged slate roofings considering that the metal degrades and also leaks. Similar to valleys and various other flashings, they can be replaced without eliminating as well as changing the whole roofing system. If left unchecked, the entire gutter boxes will rot and have to be rebuilt and changed.

Be careful of irresponsible roofing specialists.

The cause of numerous leaking slate roofs is not natural wear, metal failures, and even broke slates. It is, fairly simply, bad work. Many unqualified individuals claim to have the ability to repair slate roofs. Fully half of the work done annually by a typical slate roofing contractor involves the removal and replacement of faulty repair work. Residence owners with slate roof coverings commonly pay exorbitant sums to have their roofings trashed by these fly-by-nighters, then they have to pay a lot more of their hard-earned cash to have them dealt with and also repaired properly. The types misuses committed versus slate roofing systems include the ones that are face-nailed, tarred, fixed with non-matching slates, coated, or reflashed incorrectly (see photos). One should NEVER tar or coat the surfaces of slate roofs. Such activities are aesthetically displeasing, often permanent, and ineffective. Roofing contractors are notorious for recommending homeowners to change a perfectly excellent roof covering. House owners will certainly usually pay attention to such suggestions when a lack of experienced slaters makes it the only guidance available. These concerns, combined, have been the downfall of many slate roofs, lost permanently to lack of knowledge, forget, and misery. Get in touch with Olde Mohawk for a cost-free analysis and also conversation of your roofing’s demands. As you look for price quotes and suggestions from various other roofing professionals, use the information in this paper to test their understanding and also evaluate their approaches. Watch their eyes widen as they recognize YOU understand a lot more about slate roofing compared to they do!

Replacing busted and absent slate.

It is not unusual for a century-old slate roof covering to have 50 or even more slates simply neglect from a range of sources. Slate has natural faults or hairline fractures as well as might eventually damage. A 20 square roofing system (2,000 square feet), with a typical 10″x 20″ slate, will certainly have about 3,400 slates. If 50 of them fail after a hundred years, after that the failing price of the roof covering is 1.5 percent over ONE HUNDRED years– or a 98.5 percent success rate over a century. That’s an A+. Nonetheless, simply one missing slate is all a leakage has to begin. For an expert slater, the solution is not rocket science. Replacement slates must never ever be attached in position with visible straps or subjected nails (called “face-nails”). I duplicate, if a contractor explains face-nailing to you as his recommended method, inform him to leave your home QUICKLY. NEVER allowed him on your roofing system and also ask him to neglect your address. Ask that he not even take a look at the slate if he ever happens to drive past your property in the future!

There are 2 appropriate techniques for attaching replacement slates: the “nail and bib” technique or the “slate hook”. The nail and also bib method is one of the most commonly made use of. The damaged slate is removed with a slate ripper and also the replacement slate is secured with a nail in the slot between the two, overlying slates. A little square of blinking is glided under both, overlying slates on the following course, above, and also over the new nail head. The bib is angled a little so rubbing keeps it in position. Bibs can be light weight aluminum, copper, or other non-corrodible steel, yet glossy and reflective steels that are visible from the ground should never ever be utilized.

Copper or brown-painted aluminum (coilstock) mixes perfectly into the roof. A slate hook is a hard wire hook constructed from galvanized steel, copper or stainless-steel, approximately three inches long. A small exposed loop hooks the substitute slate in position. This is one instance when an exposed repair work tool serves because the little hook is practically unnoticeable from the ground. Stainless-steel hooks are more powerful compared to copper hooks. Slate hooks are more suitable to the nail as well as bib on brand-new slate roofs, especially for repair services in the field of the roof. Using straphangers to repair the roof needs to be avoided; they’re unattractive and they deface the roofing system.

The device required for removing slates from a roof covering is the slate ripper– a swordlike things that moves up under the slate and also pulls out both nails that hold it in position. You never ever want to cut the nail due to the fact that the item of nail left under the slate will interfere with moving the replacement slate into area. A slate hammer, one more essential slate roof covering tool, has an opening punch at one end used to punch nail holes in slates. New slates could be hard and weak and also require some method for very easy punching with a slate hammer. Conventional thickness slates (3/16″ to 1/4″) are readily cut with an easy hand-held gadget, a slate cutter.


While the slate roof covering could last “forever,” the metal flashings will not. Not all slate is the same in quality and toughness. Dishonest contractors will certainly butcher your roof or even replace it with asphalt shingles, if you let them. Armed with the above information, you are ready to wonder about potential slaters as well as evaluate your roof covering’s needs.

Benefits of Natural Slate Roofing

The Simple Advantages of Natural Slate Roofing

The Advantages of A Natural Slate Roof

If you are trying to find a “lifetime” roof that will supply amazing durability and consist of a distinct curb interest your home, consider investing into natural slate roofing. For centuries, slate has in fact been highly well-known for its natural appeal and fantastic sturdiness, unequaled by other roofing materials. Investing into a slate roofing is a substantial monetary dedication. For that reason, it is extremely important to learn about all the benefits of slate, as well its downsides.

Aesthetic Appeal

Amongst the most attractive functions of slate is its natural appeal. Slate will definitely improve the appearance of any architectural design, and is offered in a variety of natural slate colors and appearances. Slate’s color options include green, gray, black, purple, red in addition to tiles that sport a mix of colors. In addition, slate shingles are formed by hand to fulfill specific requirements and can be customized in a range of thicknesses and sizes. Regardless of its age, slate will certainly maintain its distinct look.


When it pertains to durability number of roofing materials can take on slate. A slate roof will quickly last over 100 years, which is at least double of exactly what other roofing materials can provide. Lots of slate roofing system repair manufacturers supply a 100 year warranty on their slate roofing systems. For individuals who do not prepare to ever offer their house, the remarkable resilience of slate is a very more effective function.

Sturdiness and Low Maintenance

Being a natural stone, slate is more durable than any produced material. High density of slate makes it water-proof, suggesting that it will certainly not take in water. Slate is likewise totally non-combustible and will certainly safeguard your home in the event of a fire. Slate is also highly resistant to any temperature level variations and inclement weather, making it perfect in locations susceptible to heavy rain, snow, and wind. Additionally, a slate roof will definitely not be influenced by fungus and mold. These houses make a slate roofing practically maintenance free, enabling you to have the guarantee, without having to spend additional money on expensive repair and maintenance.

High Resale Home Value

Setting up a slate roof on a house, substantially boosts its resale value. Moreover, slate’s permanence, sturdiness and aesthetic appeal will make your house more appealing to prospective purchasers if you ever choose to sell it.

Environmentally Friendly

Slate’s sturdiness makes it an environmentally friendly roof repair service option. Roofing waste from roofs that get altered every 10-20 years presently makes up 5 % of all structure waste that fills our minimizing garbage dump location. With a slate roof, you will not be contributing to the problem.