Slate – Natural Beauty with Every Step

Where Does Slate Come From?

Where Does Slate Come From?

Slate is a fine grained, crystalline stone derived from sediments of clay and great silt which were deposited on ancient sea bases. Laid over materials slowly settled the sedimentary particles into bedded deposits of shale. Hill structure pressures consequently folded, folded, and compressed the shale. At the same time, intense heat as well as stress changed the initial clays into brand-new minerals such as mica, chlorite, as well as quartz. By such mechanical and also chemical processes bedded clays were changed, or metamorphosed, into slate, whole geologic ages being consumed at the same time. Slates vary in structure, structure, and also longevity considering that the degree to which their determinant minerals have been modified is neither uniform nor consistent.
Four different tools made use of by a slater. These standard slater’s tools are utilized to destroy and also cut, hammer, gauge, and also rip out nails.

The adaptation of slate for roof replacement functions is totally linked to its genesis. The production processes of nature have endowed slate with particular commercially open residential properties which have actually had an extensive influence on the approaches by which slate is quarried and fabricated, in addition to its suitability for use as a roof floor tile.

These traditional slater's tools are used to cut and trim, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine
These traditional slater’s tools are used to cut and trim, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine

Slate roof replacement tiles are still made manually utilizing conventional approaches in a 5 step procedure: destroying, sculping, splitting, cutting, as well as opening boxing. In the manufacturing procedure, large, irregular blocks extracted from the quarry are first cut with a saw across the grain in parts slightly longer than the size of the completed roof covering slate. The blocks are next sculped, or divided along the grain of the slate, to widths slightly larger than the widths of finished slates. Sculping is normally accomplished with a mallet and a broadfaced sculpt, although some types of slate have to be cut along their grain. In the splitting location, the somewhat oversized blocks are split along their cleavage planes to the intended tile thickness. The splitter’s devices contain a wood mallet and also 2 splitting chisels used for prying the block into fifty percents as well as duplicating this process up until the intended slimness is gotten to. The last 2 steps include cutting the floor tile to the desired size and also then punching two nail holes toward the top of the slate making use of a formula based on the dimension and exposure of the slate.
Minerals, the structure blocks of rocks, with their unique crystalline frameworks define the bodily residential properties of the rocks which they make up. Slate consists of minerals that are stable and also resistant to weathering as well as is, as a result, generally of high stamina, low porosity, and low absorption. The low porosity as well as low absorption of slate mitigate the deleterious action of frost on the stone and make it well adapted for roof replacement purposes. The two most important structural properties of slate are cleavage and grain.

The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth’s crust and the heat and pressure generated thereby. For this reason, slate is discovered only in certain hilly regions. One of the most financially important slate down payments in this nation lie in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states crossed by or approaching the Appalachian Hill chain. Variants in local chemistry and also problems under which the slate was formed have produced a wide range of shades and qualities and ultimately figure out the personality of the slate found in these locations.

Slate is readily available in a variety of colors. The most typical are grey, blue-grey, black, various tones of environment-friendly, deep purple, brick red, and mottled varieties. The presence of carbonaceous matter, obtained from the decay of marine organisms on ancient sea floors, produces the black tinted slates. Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and also environment-friendly tinted slates.

An Example of a Natural Slate Quarry
An Example of a Natural Slate Quarry

Usually, the slates of Maine, Virginia, and the Peach Bottom area of York Area, Pennsylvania are deep blue-black in color. Those of Virginia have a distinctive lustrous appearance also due to their high mica material. The slates of Lehigh and also Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania, are grayish-black in color. Environment-friendly, red, purple, as well as mottled slates stem from the New York-Vermont area. The slate producing region of New York City, which centers around Granville and Middle Granville, is particularly important because it includes one of the few commercial deposits of red slate in the world.

Slates are also classified as fading or unfading based on their shade stability. Fading slates transform to new shades or may streak within a short time after exposure to the atmosphere due to the presence of finegrained disseminated pyrite. For example, the “weathering green” or “seagreen” slates of New York and also Vermont are grayish eco-friendly when fresh quarried. After direct exposure, from 20 % to 60 % of the slates typically weather to soft tones of orange-brown, buff, and gray while the others retain their original shade. Slates assigned as unfading maintain their original colors for years.

Shade durability normally supplies no sign of the sturdiness of slate. Instead, time has actually shown that the Vermont and New York slates will last about 125 years; Buckingham Virginia slates 175 years or more; and Pennsylvania SoftVein slates in excess of 60 years; Pennsylvania HardVein slates and Peach Bottom slates, neither of which is still quarried, had life spans of roughly ONE HUNDRED as well as at the very least 200 years respectively. The life expectancy given should be used only as a general guide in determining whether or not an existing slate roof covering is nearing the end of its serviceable life.

Bows show up as bands on the bosom face of slate as well as represent geologic periods during which higher bits of carbonaceous matter, calcite, or rugged quartz bits were present in the sediment where the slate was developed. Ribbons normally weather much more as well as were most common in Pennsylvania slate quarries. As they were not as resilient as clear slates, ribbon slate is no longer manufactured for roofing purposes. Mottled grey slates from Vermont are the closest match for Pennsylvania ribbon slate readily available today.

In the last few years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun to be imported into the United States, mostly for circulation on the West Coast. Using imported slates ought to possibly be restricted to new construction given that their colors and also structures frequently do not match those of U.S. slate.

Burning brand test in progress.

Fire Resistance of Natural Slate Roofing

Fire Resistance Testing of Natural Slate Roofing

The National Slate Association (NSA) and National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA) recently teamed-up to conduct testing of the fire resistance of a slate roofing system in accordance with UL 790, “Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.”

The testing was inspired by a modification in the International Building Code (IBC), the 2009 edition of which identifies slate roof covering assemblies as having a Class A fire resistance just when mounted over a fireproof roof deck. Previous editions of the IBC marked slate roofing treatments as having a Class A rating when set up over combustible and also fireproof roofing system decks. The examination setting up included nominal 1/4-inch thick, North American slate roof shingles laid with a 3-inch headlap over No. 30 felt underlayment on a 1/2-inch plyboard roofing system deck. The examined assembly attained a Class A ranking.

While it is really hoped the positive test outcomes can be utilized to substantiate the fire resistance of likewise created slate roof covering assemblies, NSA as well as NRCA will remain to interact to excluded slate roofing system coverings from examining to establish their fire classification in future editions of the IBC. For questions connected to these examination records, please consult with the National Slate Organization toll free at 866-256-2111 or email them.

These photos are property of Mark_S_Graham, see additional photos on Flickr.

Benefits of Using Natural Slate

Natural Slate Roofing Benefits

Natural Slate Roofing Benefits

Slate roofs are not just durable, they are additionally water tight and also resistant to the weathering due to the natural elements. For centuries slate has actually been truly well-known for its organic beauty and exceptional resistance to weathering. Although most of the residents pick slate roof for its visual charm, purposefully or unknowingly they also wind up enhancing their home worth because of many perks of having a slate roof covering.

Although the top qualities of slate vary with the attributes of the rock it has actually been obtained from, the slate for your roofing must possess both sturdiness as well as hardness. When it is difficult it’s easier to punch in nails and destroy the items to different sizes without it breaking or breaking at the seams.

Natural Slate is one of Chicagoland’s most popular choices when it comes to roofing because of its durability and non-fading elements. CUPA PIZARRAS leads the way when it comes to natural slate quality, appearance and overall weather sustainability.

Natural Slate Roofing Installers - A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605
Installing CUPA Natural Slate – Chicagoland Installers A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605

The solidity avoids it from absorbing water during wet climate and also the repeating developments and contractions that can trigger the nail gaps to enlarge, loosening the roof as a consequence.

Homeowners opting for a slate roofing also enjoy lower insurance premiums because of having a fire resistant roof– since slate is made from stone, it doesn’t catch fire easily. With most of the slates having an absorption index of less than 0.4 % they are very resistant to water and therefore, they are not prone to cracking with the change of period. Due to the level surface area as well as very easy placing they can stand up to intense winds and they can easily endure via serious hailstorm storms without much damage.
It also reduces your energy costs because of its natural insulation capabilities. Whether you want to preserve cooler air inside or warm air, a slate roofing system doesn’t let it easily escape.

Natural Slate Roofing Installers - A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605
Natural Slate Roofing Installers – A.B. Edward Enterprises, Inc. (847) 827-1605

Why use slate over other roofing materials?

  • Slate offers you an unparalleled mix of longevity and also natural beauty
  • It can be cut into thin floor tiles of consistent density without much difficulty
  • A wide selection of natural slate shades and rich textures can enhance the aesthetic sense of any building
  • A typical roof covering made of slate could last for more compared to 120 years without repairs.
  • Slate being 100 % natural building material, it requires minimal processing and consequently, incurs less wastage of materials
  • Slate reclaimed from older buildings can be reused for newer renovations
  • No chemicals or artificial products called for unlike other artificial roofing materials
  • Slate roof coverings are fire immune, they are waterproof and they do not retain snow or ice
  • Quickly repairable after unexpected breakage
  • Slate roofs are insect resistance as insects can not effortlessly burrow right into slate, lay eggs or develop colonies inside the holes

Interesting in more information on a natural slate roof? Call us at (847) 827-1605 for a FREE ESTIMATE!